Phraseology received increasing attention in the English-speaking world. Linguistic competence also includes a familiarity with restricted collocations (like break the rules), idioms (like spill the beans in a non-literal sense) and proverbs (like Revenge is sweet), as well as the ability to produce or understand metaphorical interpretations.
Vinogradov;s classification of phraseological units:
A) phraseological combinations – are word – groups with a partially changed meaning. They may be said to be clearly motivated, that is the meaning of the units can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents.
Ex. to be good at smth., to have a bite.
B) unities – are word – groups with a completely changed meaning, that is, the meaning of the unit doesn;t correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts.
Ex. to loose one;s head (to be out of one;s mind), to loose one;s heart to smb.(to fall in love).
C) fussions – are word – groups with a completely changed meaning but, in contrast to the units, they are demotivated, that is, their meaning can;t be deduced from the meanings of its constituent parts.
Ex. to come a cropper(to come to disaster).
The Koonin;s classification is the latest outstanding achievement in the Russian theory of phraseology.
I. Nominative phraseological units – are represented by word – groups, including the ones with one meaningful word, and coordinative phrases of the type wear and tear, well and good.
II. Nominative – communicative phraseological units – include word – groups, of the type to break the ice – the ice is broken
III. Phraseological units – which are neither nominative nor communicative include interjectional word – groups.
IV. Communicative phraseological units – are represented by proverbs and sayings.