Far North at ancient times
The Far North was developed by the man long ago. Several thousands years people lived here, but they were few and traditional forms of managing – deer-breeding, hunting, fishing – did not bring large changes into environment. It is considered that the attitude of the primitive hunter and stock-breeder to the nature and its gifts in most cases was thoughtless, and even hostile, that to cut the twig on which he sits is human.
At the best his behaviour could be called “the strategy of a provident predator”. People stopped hunting animals, when they become rare, gave the rest to worn-out pastures. It is fair enough in regard to North and to northerners. However it is doubtless that from immemorial times some reasonable principles of attitude to the nature have been developed here. Inhabitants of Chukotka and Alaska, for example, from time immemorial kept reasonable rules of a walrus hunting on coastal rookeries. These rules were directed to saving of walrus herds, on maintenance of their optimal number. These rules amaze the modern zoologists with the simplicity and wisdom. Probably, ancient sea-hunters knew many features of their “bread-winners” biology. This knowledge became birthright of the science only in the latest years. Probably other northern nationalities developed similar hunting laws. Unfortunately they remain unexplored and the possibilities of its learning reduce very quickly, because old men-keepers of these rules remain less and less. Meanwhile I am sure that those lows would be useful for the development of the strategy of relations between the man and natural life of the North. Aren’t reasonable such hunting rules?
“To be stingy, greedy – is offensive for the man “. “Do not hunt and do not try to hunt superfluous”. “It is necessary to eat everything you have got. If you will not eat then what for to hunt?” “Do not take bird’s eggs from nests – birds will disappear”. “Do not ruin Arctic fox burrows”. It is remarkable that northern nationalities in a remote past created here kinds of reserves. There were many “sacred” places here – hills, rivers, capes. In the twelfth and thirteenth natives of Kiev and Vladimir Russia, from Great Novgorod, Moscow state occupied coasts of the White Sea. They were merchants, hunters and fishermen. In the seventeenth century Western Europe whalers and sea-hunters have begun to hunt in northern seas. Five hundred and even thousand ships annually came on here. At the beginning of the last century whales were almost completely destroyed. And very soon herbs shared the lot of whales, the resources of seals were reduced…At that time both in Europe, and in America the demand on blue fox has risen, and northerners began to hunt Arctic Fox. In exchange for furs they received firearms. With the help of fire-arms it was easier to hunt wild deers and sea animals. Northerners began to take advantage of native gifts very unreasonable and it is no wonder that these gifts melt away very quickly…